John of Damascus a Syrian monk and presbyter19th-century Arabic icon The earliest surviving written criticisms of Islam are to be found in the writings of Christians who came under the early dominion of the Islamic Caliphate. One such Christian was John of Damascus c. The second chapter of his book, The Fount of Wisdom, titled "Concerning Heresies", presents a series of discussions between Christians and Muslims.
John of Damascus a Syrian monk and presbyter19th-century Arabic icon The earliest surviving written criticisms of Islam are to be found in the writings of Christians who came under the early dominion of the Islamic Caliphate. One such Christian was John of Damascus c.
The second chapter of his book, The Fount of Wisdom, titled "Concerning Heresies", presents a series of discussions between Christians and Muslims. John claimed an Arian monk whom he did not know was Bahira influenced Muhammad and viewed the Islamic doctrines as nothing more than a hodgepodge culled from the Bible.
Abu Isa al-Warraq and I bn al-Rawanditwo 9th-century critics of Islam and religion in general,  along with al-Ma'arrian 11th-century Arab poet and critic of Islam and all other religions who was also known for his veganism and antinatalism.
In tenth and eleventh-century Syria there lived a blind poet called Al-Ma'arri. He became well known for a poetry that was affected by a "pervasive pessimism.
He had particular contempt for the ulemawriting that: They recite their sacred books, although the fact informs me that these are fiction from first to last. O Reason, thou alone speakest the truth. Then perish the fools who forged the religious traditions or interpreted them!
He reasoned that the Sharia was incompatible with the principles of justice, and that this undercut the notion of Muhammad being the perfect man: That is why, to this day we never see anyone converting to Islam unless in terror, or in quest of power, or to avoid heavy taxation, or to escape humiliation, or if taken prisoner, or because of infatuation with a Muslim woman, or for some similar reason.
Nor do we see a respected, wealthy, and pious non-Muslim well versed in both his faith and that of Islam, going over to the Islamic faith without some of the aforementioned or similar motives. Maimonides has no quarrel with the strict monotheism of Islam, but finds fault with the practical politics of Muslim governments.
He also considered Islamic ethics and politics to be inferior to their Jewish counterparts. Maimonides criticised what he perceived as the lack of virtue in the way Muslims rule their societies and relate to one another. No steady rule of right seems there to be attended to; and every action is blamed or praised, so far as it is beneficial or hurtful to the true believers.
Now, some Mohammedans are the crudest in this respect, and the most sectarian. From the Pacific to the Atlantic, for five hundred years blood ran all over the world. Nevertheless, among these Mohammedans, wherever there has a philosophic man, he was sure to protest against these cruelties.
In that he showed the touch of the Divine and realised a fragment of the truth; he was not playing with his religion; for it was not his father's religion he was talking, but spoke the truth direct like a man. And so also with the race.
That race which is bound down to itself has been the most cruel and the most wicked in the whole world.
There has not been a religion that has clung to this dualism more than that founded by the Prophet of Arabia, and there has not been a religion, which has shed so much blood and been so cruel to other men.
In the Koran there is the doctrine that a man who does not believe these teachings should be killed, it is a mercy to kill him!
And the surest way to get to heaven, where there are beautiful houris and all sorts of sense enjoyments, is by killing these unbelievers. Think of the bloodshed there has been in consequence of such beliefs! If one does not take the standard of reason, there cannot be any true judgment, even in the case of religions.
One religion may ordain something very hideous. For instance, the Mohammedan religion allows Mohammedans to kill all who are not of their religion.
It is clearly stated in the Koran, Kill the infidels if they do not become Mohammedans.
They must be put to fire and sword. Now if we tell a Mohammedan that this is wrong, he will naturally ask, "How do you know that? How do you know it is not good? My book says it is. Had the God of the Quran been the Lord of all creatures, and been Merciful and kind to all, he would never have commanded the Mohammedans to slaughter men of other faiths, and animals, etc.A PLATFORM FOR THOUGHT AND HUMANITY "In generosity and helping others, be like a river.
In compassion and grace, be like the sun. The Diffusion of Islam: Its Influence on Our Culture. BIG IDEAS, BIG THINKERS they had to absorb and accept what was there -- in terms of religion, in terms of people, in terms of the Greek language.".
HAMLET'S MILL. AN ESSAY INVESTIGATING THE ORIGINS OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE. AND ITS TRANSMISSION THROUGH MYTH. Giorgio De Santillana and Hertha Von Dechend IRAN. iv. MYTHS AND LEGENDS. caninariojana.com popular usage “myth” is equated with something being false or illusory.
In the study of religion, in contrast, myths are seen as narratives whichencapsulate fundamental truths about the nature of existence, God(s), the universe. - Muhammad and The Foundation of Islam Works Cited Not Included As a religion, Islam is based on the teachings of Muhammad, embodying a sound belief in one God (Allah).
Islam is an Arabic word meaning submission, surrender, and obedience (Maududi, 1). Evangelii Gaudium, Apostolic Exhortation of Pope Francis, 1. The joy of the gospel fills the hearts and lives of all who encounter Jesus.
Those who accept his offer of salvation are set free from sin, sorrow, inner emptiness and loneliness. If the people of this religion [Islam] are asked about the proof for the soundness of their religion, they flare up, get angry and spill the blood of whoever confronts them with this question.