The definitions from the UCR Program of the first three of the above violent crimes is included below for the purposes of this chapter robbery shall not be focussed onso that the reader may more easily comprehend the implications of these crimes and will be able to better understand what it is that we shall be referring to throughout the rest of this chapter. Knowledge of the type of crime committed will also assist in understanding the motive behind why it was committed. Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter: The classification of this offense is based solely on police investigation as opposed to the determination of a court, medical examiner, coroner, jury, or other judicial body.
Boston — Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. Boston is also the seat of Suffolk County, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, The city proper covers 48 square miles with a population ofinmaking it the largest city in New England.
Alternately, as a Combined Statistical Area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8. Its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing over 20 million visitors per year, Bostons many firsts include the United States first public school, Boston Latin School, first subway system, the Tremont Street Subway, and first public park, Boston Common.
Bostons economic base also includes finance, professional and business services, biotechnology, information technology, the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Bostons early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but later renamed it Boston after Boston, Lincolnshire, England, the renaming on September 7, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest of fresh water.
Their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as BC, inthe Massachusetts Bay Colonys first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city.
Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history, over the next years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America.
Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the midth century, Bostons harbor activity was significantly curtailed by the Embargo Act of and the War of Foreign trade returned after these hostilities, but Bostons merchants had found alternatives for their investments in the interim.
Manufacturing became an important component of the economy, and the citys industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance by the midth century.
Boston remained one of the nations largest manufacturing centers until the early 20th century, a network of small rivers bordering the city and connecting it to the surrounding region facilitated shipment of goods and led to a proliferation of mills and factories.
Later, a network of railroads furthered the regions industry. Boston was a port of the Atlantic triangular slave trade in the New England colonies 2. The state is named for the Massachusett tribe, which inhabited the area. Originally dependent on agriculture, fishing and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution, during the 20th century, Massachusetts economy shifted from manufacturing to services.
Modern Massachusetts is a leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance. Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in by the Pilgrims, inthe town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of Americas most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials.
InGeneral Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, inShays Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention.
In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, in the late 18th century, Boston became known as the Cradle of Liberty for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution. The entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States.
Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist, temperance, in the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively.
Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams, both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, also in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts public school students place among the top nations in the world in academic performance, the official name of the state is the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
While this designation is part of the official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has the position and powers within the United States as other states. Massachusetts was originally inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Narragansett, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc, Mahican, and Massachusett.
While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, and tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. This was the second successful permanent English colony in the part of North America that later became the United States, the event known as the First Thanksgiving was celebrated by the Pilgrims after their first harvest in the New World which lasted for three days 3.
Tear gas — Tear gas, formally known as a lachrymatory agent or lachrymator, is a chemical weapon that causes severe eye, respiratory, and skin irritation, pain, vomiting, and even blindness.
In the eye, it stimulates the nerves of the gland to produce tears. Common lachrymators include pepper spray, CS gas, CR gas, CN gas, nonivamide, bromoacetone, xylyl bromide, syn-propanethial-S-oxide, lachrymatory agents are commonly used for riot control. Their use in warfare is prohibited by international treaties.
During World War I, increasingly toxic lachrymatory agents were used, tear gas works by irritating mucous membranes in the eyes, nose, mouth and lungs, and causes crying, sneezing, coughing, difficulty breathing, pain in the eyes, and temporary blindness.
With CS gas, symptoms of irritation typically appear after 20—60 seconds of exposure, with pepper spray, the onset of symptoms, including loss of motor control, is almost immediate. There can be variation in tolerance and response, according to the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology.
The California Poison Control System analyzed 3, reports of pepper spray injuries between andsevere symptoms requiring medical evaluation were found in 6. The most severe occurred in law enforcement training, intentionally incapacitating people.Junger's book lays out the case for another possible killer: Albert DeSalvo, the jailed rapist who, in exchange for immunity, freely confessed to thirteen Boston Strangler killings.
"Al" it turns out had been working as a carpenter's handyman in the Junger's home. It also has a fascinating look at Albert DeSalvo who is known as the Boston Strangler from the observation and casual knowledge of the writer's mother, who for a brief time employed Albert DeSalvo on a building project to add a room to their home/5(36).
Albert Henry DeSalvo (November 3, - November 25, ) was a serial killer active in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, in the early s. Authorities long debated whether Albert DeSalvo was the Boston Strangler. He was a serial sexual predator and certainly capable of strangling women while raping them.
In fact, Albert DeSalvo admitted being the Strangler and claimed responsibility for the thirteen cases, plus other homicides. Charles Cullen is a former nurse and the most prolific serial killer in New Jersey history.
Cullen told authorities in December that he had murdered as many as 45 patients during the 16 years he worked at 10 hospitals in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The worker's name was Albert caninariojana.com the course of the next few years, Roy Smith was convicted of the Belmont killing; the Boston Strangler killings continued; and then, eventually, Albert DeSalvo was arrested and confessed to most of the Strangler killings (but not the one which had been "solved" in Belmont) and then the killings stopped /5.