Abstract Among metal pollutants silver ions are one of the most toxic forms, and have thus been assigned to the highest toxicity class. Its toxicity to a wide range of microorganisms combined with its low toxicity to humans lead to the development of a wealth of silver-based products in many bactericidal applications accounting to more than nano-technology-based consumer products.
An historical overview of the use of silver in wound management, preservation and conservation. ABSTRACT Compounds have been medically used for thousands of years, the recent research focus on this element has led to a resurgence in interest, particularly in the field of wound care product development.
The increasing problems of antibiotic resistance, combined with concerns over the safety and toxicity of topical antiseptics, has highlighted the need for a safe agent which can be used to treat colonized and infected wounds effectively. Wounds, notably chronic wounds, can support a wide variety of microorganisms, many of which are pathogens, and act as a source for cross-infection.
While systemic antibiotics are justifiably recognized as the first-line treatment of choice for chronic wounds with spreading cellulitis and infected wounds in 'at risk' patients, not all infected wounds merit this treatment. There is now a rationale for the judicious use of suitable topical antisepsis in certain colonized, critically colonized, and infected wounds.
The increasing evidence available on products containing silver suggests that this element can fulfil a valuable role in wound care.
This review of the history of silver as an antibacterial covers the mode of action of preparations containing silver and concludes with a focus on silver as a component of the modern wound management products: Arglaes, Acticoat, Actisorb Silver and Avance.
Man has been aware of the medicinal and preservative properties of silver for over years. The ancient Greek and Roman civilizations are credited with the use of silver vessels to keep drinking water drinkable.
The addition of silver coins to containers of drinking water has continued to this day -- the water tanks on spacecraft are lined with silver.
The internal, or systemic use of silver certainly dates back to the work of Angelus Sola in the early 17th century Gettler et al, He used silver nitrate to treat epilepsy, tabes and chorea.
However, this practice ceased by the beginning of the 20th century. The chemical forms used have been salts, such as silver nitrate, as well as elemental and colloidal silver. MacLeod refers to his experience with colloidal silver -- Collosol Argentum -- introduced by Crookes Chemists in for the treatment of bacterial infections by topical, intravenous, hypodermic and oral dosage.
The topical dosing was for impetigo, acne, septic leg ulcers and ringworm. The interest in this preparation resulted in detailed research on its bactericidal action Marshall and Killoh, The studies used commercial Collosol a colloidal solution of silver at 1 part in silver colloid, neat and diluted, on cultures of various pathogenic bacteria in vitro.
The time and dilution required to kill the organisms were noted. Organisms killed successfully included Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi A and B, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis. The major silver preparations that have seen widespread clinical use this past century are the solution of silver nitrate, silver sulphadiazine SSD cream and a variety of dressings containing elemental or ionized silver.
There have been some other products, such as silver-zinc-allantoinate Margraf and Covey, The use of different topical silver preparations is closely related to wound categories, e.
Without doubt, the single most studied aspect has been in burns therapy. This approach was probably first undertaken by Moyer et al using silver nitrate 0. Clinical experience showed that the silver was rapidly deactivated and, to maintain efficacy, large quantities of dressings soaked in this solution had to be applied regularly to the burned area Fox, It is probable that, at the same time as Moyer et al were conducting their research, Fox was developing a compound of silver with an antibiotic, thus providing a double therapy.
The antibiotics chosen for in vitro evaluation and in vivo animal model testing were penicillin and the sulphonamide sulphadiazine among others. While all were effective in vitro, only the sulphadiazine was effective topically in ointment formulation, particularly against pseudomonads.
Request PDF on ResearchGate | The effects of silver nitrate, colchicine, cupric sulfate and genotype on the production of embryoids from anthers of tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum) | Anther. The properties of the bactericidal action of silver zeolite as affected by inorganic salts and ion chelators were similar to those of silver nitrate. Comparison of the inhibitory effects of several substances on the bactericidal activities of silver It remains unclear why ferrous ion and its chelators have different effects on the. To confirm the effects of Ag nanoparticles, a comparative study of Ag nanoparticles and silver nitrate on antimicrobial activity against E. coli OH8 was performed. Approximately 10 7 colony-forming units of E. coli were inoculated on MHA plates, and then 20 μL of Ag nanoparticles and silver nitrate were spread in the same .
In addition, the sulphadiazine had the advantages of remaining white where many other silver compounds oxidize to an unsightly black oxide and was not deactivated by components of wound exudate. This was to become the silver sulphadiazine that is widely used today. References to the use of silver on chronic wounds date back to studies on ulcers in the 17th and 18th centuries Klasen, a.The health effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have not been well investigated, despite AgNPs now being widely used in consumer products.
We introduce living environment, analysis, metabolic behavior, toxicity, and human health effect of AgNPs in comparison to silver nitrate (AgNO 3).
Silver particles were prepared by rapidly injecting mL of 10 mM NaBH 4 into 20 mL PVA solution containing mM silver nitrate at room temperature. After 5 min of stirring, the reaction mixture was stored at 4 °C before use.
Briefly, a mL aqueous particular sample were averaged and this value regarded as the solution of 10–3 M silver nitrate was mixed with a mL minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Ag nanoparticles aqueous solution of M sodium borohydride.
Effect of copper sulfate on luminescent bacteria P. leiognathi Sh1: 1- intact; 2- treated with μg/mL silver nanoparticles for 10 min.
In the best condition and without silver additives, at most 60% of copper was extracted even in the presence of energy sources such as sulfur, ferrous and ferric ions. In the most effective test with initial pH , 50 mg/L silver nitrate, and 50 g/L ferric sulfate, % of copper was dissolved in less than a week with highest kinetics rate.
Silver cations (Ag +) show a lethal effect on many micro‐organisms including bacteria, viruses and algae, but they are not cytotoxic for human cells (Landeen et al.
). The antimicrobial effect of silver was first investigated by Modak and Fox () and Thurman and Gerba ().