Philosophy and the proof of God's existence One of the most far-reaching consequences of the rationalism of the Enlightenment was the undermining of basic Christian faith among the educated classes. The effect was unintended because the project of many Enlightenment philosophers was to prove the existence of God using reason: Descartes and Leibniz assumed that God's existence could be rationally proved, indeed God was a necessary part of their philosophy. There are many traditional "proofs" for the existence of God, and we will look at three of them:
Indian philosophy Indian philosophy Sanskrit: Some of the earliest surviving philosophical texts are the Upanishads of the later Vedic period — BCE. Important Indian philosophical concepts include dharmakarmasamsaramoksha and ahimsa. Indian philosophers developed a system of epistemological reasoning Philosophy of god and what is and logic and investigated topics such as metaphysics, ethics, hermeneutics and soteriology.
Indian philosophy also covered topics such as political philosophy as seen in the Arthashastra c. The commonly named six orthodox schools arose sometime between the start of the Common Era and the Gupta Empire. Later developments include the development of Tantra and Iranian-Islamic influences.
Buddhism mostly disappeared from India after the Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinentsurviving in the Himalayan regions and south India. Due to the influence of British colonialism, much modern Indian philosophical work was in English and includes thinkers such as RadhakrishnanKrishna Chandra BhattacharyaBimal Krishna Matilal and M.
Jain philosophy Jain philosophy separates body matter from the soul consciousness completely. Jain philosophy attempts to explain the rationale of being and existence, the nature of the Universe and its constituents, the nature of bondage and the means to achieve liberation.
Jain texts expound that in every half-cycle of time, twenty-four tirthankaras grace this part of the Universe to teach the unchanging doctrine of right faith, right knowledge and right conduct. Buddhist philosophy begins with the thought of Gautama Buddha fl. Buddhist thought is trans-regional and trans-cultural.
It originated in India and later spread to East AsiaTibetCentral Asiaand Southeast Asiadeveloping new and syncretic traditions in these different regions. The various Buddhist schools of thought are the dominant philosophical tradition in Tibet and Southeast Asian countries like Sri Lanka and Burma.
Because ignorance to the true nature of things is considered one of the roots of suffering dukkhaBuddhist philosophy is concerned with epistemology, metaphysics, ethics and psychology. The ending of dukkha also encompasses meditative practices. Key innovative concepts include the Four Noble TruthsAnatta not-self a critique of a fixed personal identitythe transience of all things Aniccaand a certain skepticism about metaphysical questions.
Mahayana philosophers such as Nagarjuna and Vasubandhu developed the theories of Shunyata emptiness of all phenomena and Vijnapti-matra appearance onlya form of phenomenology or transcendental idealism. After the disappearance of Buddhism from India, these philosophical traditions continued to develop in the Tibetan BuddhistEast Asian Buddhist and Theravada Buddhist traditions.
The modern period saw the rise of Buddhist modernism and Humanistic Buddhism under Western influences and the development of a Western Buddhism with influences from modern psychology and Western philosophy.
East Asian philosophy The Analects of Confucius fl. East Asian philosophical thought began in Ancient Chinaand Chinese philosophy begins during the Western Zhou Dynasty and the following periods after its fall when the " Hundred Schools of Thought " flourished 6th century to BCE.
These philosophical traditions developed metaphysical, political and ethical theories such TaoYin and yangRen and Li which, along with Chinese Buddhismdirectly influenced Korean philosophyVietnamese philosophy and Japanese philosophy which also includes the native Shinto tradition.
During later Chinese dynasties like the Ming Dynasty — as well as in the Korean Joseon dynasty — a resurgent Neo-Confucianism led by thinkers such as Wang Yangming — became the dominant school of thought, and was promoted by the imperial state.
In the Modern era, Chinese thinkers incorporated ideas from Western philosophy.
Modern Japanese thought meanwhile developed under strong Western influences such as the study of Western Sciences Rangaku and the modernist Meirokusha intellectual society which drew from European enlightenment thought.
The 20th century saw the rise of State Shinto and also Japanese nationalism. The Kyoto Schoolan influential and unique Japanese philosophical school developed from Western phenomenology and Medieval Japanese Buddhist philosophy such as that of Dogen.
African philosophy Main article: African philosophy African philosophy is philosophy produced by African peoplephilosophy that presents African worldviews, ideas and themes, or philosophy that uses distinct African philosophical methods. Modern African thought has been occupied with Ethnophilosophywith defining the very meaning of African philosophy and its unique characteristics and what it means to be African.
Another early African philosopher was Anton Wilhelm Amo c. Contemporary African thought has also seen the development of Professional philosophy and of Africana philosophythe philosophical literature of the African diaspora which includes currents such as black existentialism by African-Americans.
Modern African thinkers have been influenced by MarxismAfrican-American literatureCritical theoryCritical race theoryPostcolonialism and Feminism. Indigenous American philosophy is the philosophy of the Indigenous people of the Americas.
There is a wide variety of beliefs and traditions among these different American cultures. Among some of the Native Americans in the United States there is a belief in a metaphysical principle called the "Great Mystery" Siouan: Wakan TankaAlgonquian: Another widely shared concept was that of Orenda or "spiritual power".
According to Peter M. Whiteley, for the Native Americans, "Mind is critically informed by transcendental experience dreams, visions and so on as well as by reason.Does God exist? An answer to this fundamental question is a prerequisite for answering the other big questions of life: Where did we come from?
Why are we here? Do we serve a purpose?
Do we have any intrinsic value? What happens after we die? The question of the existence of God is fundamental. Does. Does God Exist? Does God Exist - The Big Questions Does God exist? An answer to this fundamental question is a prerequisite for answering the other big questions of life: Where did we come from?
The renaissance of Christian philosophy has been accompanied by a resurgence of interest in natural theology – that branch of theology which seeks to prove God’s existence without appeal to the resources of authoritative divine revelation – for instance, through philosophical argument. All of the traditional philosophical arguments for.
Western Concepts of God. () agreed with Descartes that clear and distinct ideas indeed reflect reality, but he thought that philosophy must start with God, not the self.
This is because God is first in the order of things.
God's primacy is also the reason Spinoza rejected Bacon's method of beginning with observation. Philosophy and the proof of God's existence.
One of the most far-reaching consequences of the rationalism of the Enlightenment was the undermining of basic Christian faith . The renaissance of Christian philosophy has been accompanied by a resurgence of interest in natural theology – that branch of theology which seeks to prove God’s existence without appeal to the resources of authoritative divine revelation – for instance, through philosophical argument.
All of the traditional philosophical arguments for.