British Dictionary definitions for nature nature noun the fundamental qualities of a person or thing; identity or essential character often capital, esp when personified the whole system of the existence, arrangement, forces, and events of all physical life that are not controlled by man all natural phenomena and plant and animal life, as distinct from man and his creations a wild primitive state untouched by man or civilization natural unspoilt scenery or countryside disposition or temperament tendencies, desires, or instincts governing behaviour the normal biological needs or urges of the body sort; kind; character the real appearance of a person or thinga painting very true to nature accepted standards of basic morality or behaviour biology the complement of genetic material that partly determines the structure of an organism; genotypeCompare nurture def. Nature and nurture have been contrasted since Nature should be avoided in such vague expressions as 'a lover of nature,' 'poems about nature.
Dominant instructional activities Teacher lectures; students memorise material for tests Student-selected reading, student-selected projects, discovery learning Teacher-guided participation in both small-and large-group work; recording and analysing individual student progress; explicit assistance to reach higher levels of competence Who is responsible if student does not progress?
Often, family or social conditions are at fault. The more capable others: What Is Learned Must Be Taught An important argument in educational practice today centres on the debate of whether learning can proceed naturally and without much intervention or whether what is learned must be taught. While we agree that creating an environment in which kids will naturally grow and learn is attractive, both Hillocks and Vygotsky would maintain that teachers who believe or enact only this vision are letting themselves off the hook.
Both argue that anything that is learned must be actively taught. We make thousands of teaching decisions a day and all the decisions we make are theoretical, based on what we value, on what we think we are doing or should be doing, and on what we think will work toward those purposes.
We want our decisions to work to support learning for all of our kids, even though some didn't do the reading, some constructivism in teaching writing as a process it and have no clue, some are five chapters ahead, and all are at widely different skill levels.
What can we do so that our teaching is effective for all of our students in ways that work and make sense to us and to the kids? How can we teach so they can understand the purpose and use of what we do together in class, so they can all develop new abilities built on the skills they already possess, and so they can understand a higher purpose, pattern, and sense to classroom work?
Powerful Teaching George Hillocks maintains that teachers should and can possess specialised knowledge of students, of particular content and tasks, and of how to represent and teach this knowledge. In other words, when we teach, we teach something to somebody.
We need to know both our subject and student. We need to know how to teach in general, and in particular situations with the particular skills called for in that situation or with that text.
Shulman argues that there is a knowledge base for teaching and that it includes the following: When we know these things, then theory allows practices to stem in a wide-awake way from an articulate and unified set of principles. These principles can then lead us to scrutinise our teaching and to up the ante on it, pushing us forward to more powerful teaching.
A Theoretical Perspective When you assign a task and the students successfully complete it without help, they could already do it.
They have been taught nothing. What a child can do alone and unassisted is a task that lies in what Vygotsky calls the zone of actual development ZAD. When a teacher assigns a task and the students are able to do it, the task is within the ZAD.
They have already been taught and have mastered the skills involved in that task. I remember many times in my own teaching career when I made such an assignment and exulted at my teaching prowess when the most excellent projects were submitted. Vygotsky wouldn't have been so sanguine.
He would say that the kids could already do what I asked them to do, and I had taught them nothing. The place where instruction and learning can take place is the zone of proximal development ZPD.
Learning occurs in this cognitive region, which lies just beyond what the child can do alone. Anything that the child can learn with the assistance and support of a teacher, peers, and the instructional environment is said to lie within the ZPD.
A child's new capacities can only be developed in the ZPD through collaboration in actual, concrete, situated activities with an adult or more capable peer.
With enough assisted practice, the child internalises the strategies and language for completing this task, which then becomes part of the child's psychology and personal problem-solving repertoire. When this is achieved, the strategy then enters the student's zone of actual development, because she is now able to successfully complete the task alone and without help and to apply this knowledge to new situations she may encounter.
Of course, there are assignments and tasks that lie beyond the ZPD, and even with expert assistance the student is incapable of completing the task. I have unwittingly given many assignments and assigned many books during my career that were beyond the ZPD of most of my students.
Such assignments, no matter what the curriculum might proclaim, are acts of hopelessness that lead to frustration. In fact, such texts are designated by Analytical and Informal Reading Inventories to be at the student's frustrational reading level.
Vygotsky viewed teaching as leading development instead of responding to it, if teaching is in the ZPD. Texts at the independent level are those the student can read alone and are therefore in the ZAD.Constructivist teaching is based on constructivist learning caninariojana.comuctivist teaching is based on the belief that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in a process of meaning and knowledge construction as opposed to passively receiving caninariojana.comrs are .
Learning through real-world experiences with others allows students to grow and understand things more easily. In this lesson, we'll examine constructivism in depth, including social learning, the. Learning theories in practice/Process writing in L2 Classrooms. Constructivism Acts of Teaching: How to Teach Writing: A Text.
Learning is an active process. Social constructivism, though constructivism as a theory and teaching techniques and writing are relying. In this article, we address implications of constructivism for teaching writing to students with special needs.
Specifically, whole language and process approaches to writing instruction, the two most popular composition programs based on the principles of constructivism, are examined. The Museum and the Needs of PeopleCECA (International Committee of Museum Educators) ConferenceJerusalem Israel, October Prof.
George E. .